It can be difficult to have everything on hand all the time.  I have compiled a list of common substitutions, in case you have an ingredient, or simply want to try something else.  It’s great for missing ingredients, dietary needs, and even the picky eater!

Ingredient Amount Substitution
Allspice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon granulated ginger, and 1/4 teaspoon ground clove combined
Arrowroot Starch 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon flour, or 1 teaspoon cornstarch
Baking mix 1 cup 1 cup pancake mix
Baking powder 1 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar, or 1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 cup buttermilk (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup)
Baking soda 1 teaspoon 4 teaspoons baking powder,  1 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate and 1/3 teaspoon salt (if the recipe calls for an acidic liquid such as sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, vinegar, molasses, or citrus juice, you should replace it with the same amount of whole milk)
Beer 1 cup 1 cup nonalcoholic beer, or 1 cup chicken broth
Brandy 1/4 cup 1 teaspoon imitation brandy extract and enough water to make 1/4 cup total liquid
Bread crumbs 1 cup 1 cup cracker crumbs, or 1 cup matzo meal, or 1 cup ground oats
Broth (beef or chicken) 1 cup 1 bouillon cube and 1 cup boiling water, or 1 tablespoon soy sauce and enough water to make 1 cup total liquid, or 1 cup vegetable broth
Brown sugar 1 cup, packed 1 cup white sugar and 1/4 cup molasses (decrease the liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup), or 1 cup white sugar, or 1 1/4 cups confectioners sugar
Butter (salted) 1 cup 1 cup margarine, or 1 cup shortening and 1/2 teaspoon salt, or 7/8 cup vegetable oil and 1/2 teaspoon salt, or 7/8 cup lard and 1/2 teaspoon salt
Butter (unsalted) 1 cup 1 cup shortening,  or 7/8 cup vegetable oil, or 7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup yogurt, or 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar and enough milk to make 1 cup total liquid
Cheddar cheese 1 cup, shredded 1 cup shredded Colby cheddar, or 1 cup shredded Monterey Jack cheese
Chervil 1 tablespoon, chopped fresh 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
Chicken base 1 tablespoon 1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock (reduce liquid in recipe by 1 cup)
Chocolate (semisweet) 1 ounce 1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate and 4 teaspoons sugar, or 1 ounce semisweet chocolate chips and 1 teaspoon shortening
Chocolate (unsweetened) 1 ounce 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa and 1 tablespoon shortening or vegetable oil
Cocoa 1/4 cup 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate
Condensed cream of mushroom soup 1 (10.75 ounce) can 1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, or golden mushroom soup
Corn syrup 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar and 1/3 cup water, or 1 cup honey, or 1 cup light treacle syrup
Cottage cheese 1 cup 1 cup farmer’s cheese, or 1 cup ricotta cheese
Cracker crumbs 1 cup 1 cup bread crumbs, or 1 cup matzo meal, or 1 cup ground oats
Cream (half-and-half) 1 cup 7/8 cup milk and 1 tablespoon butter
Cream (heavy) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk, or 3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter
Cream (light) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk, or 3/4 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter
Cream (whipped) 1 cup 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Cream cheese 1 cup 1 cup pureed cottage cheese, or 1 cup plain yogurt strained overnight in a cheesecloth
Cream of tartar 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar
Crème fraiche 1 cup Combine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tablespoon of plain yogurt (let stand for 6 hours at room temperature)
Egg 1 whole 2 1/2 tablespoons of powdered egg substitute and 2 1/2 tablespoons water, or 1/4 cup liquid egg substitute, or 1/4 cup silken tofu pureed, or 3 tablespoons mayonnaise, or half a banana mashed and 1/2 teaspoon baking powder, or 1 tablespoon powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tablespoons water
Evaporated milk 1 cup 1 cup light cream
Farmer’s cheese 8 ounces 8 ounces dry cottage cheese, or 8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained
Fats (for baking) 1 cup 1 cup applesauce, or 1 cup fruit puree
Flour (for breads) 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour and 1 teaspoon wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)
Flour (for cakes) 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
Flour (self-rising) 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon of salt
Garlic 1 clove 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder, or 1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic, or 1/2 teaspoon garlic salt (reduce salt in recipe)
Gelatin 1 tablespoon, granulated 2 teaspoons agar
Ginger (powder or granulated) 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons chopped fresh ginger
Ginger (fresh) 1 teaspoon, minced 1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger
Green onion 1/2 cup, chopped 1/2 cup chopped onion, or 1/2 cup chopped leek, or 1/2 cup chopped shallots
Hazelnuts 1 cup, whole 1 cup macadamia nuts, or 1 cup almonds
Herbs (fresh) 1 tablespoon, chopped fresh 1 teaspoon (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs
Herring 8 ounces 8 ounces of sardines
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar and 1/3 cup water, or 1 cup corn syrup
Hot sauce 1 teaspoon 3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper and 1 teaspoon vinegar
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1 teaspoon vinegar, and 1 tablespoon sugar
Lard 1 cup 1 cup shortening, or 7/8 cup vegetable oil, or 1 cup butter
Lemongrass 2 fresh stalks 1 tablespoon lemon zest
Lemon juice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon vinegar, or 1 teaspoon white wine, or 1 teaspoon lime juice
Lemon zest 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract, or 2 tablespoons lemon juice
Lime juice 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon vinegar, or 1 teaspoon white wine, or 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Lime zest 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon lemon zest
Macadamia nuts 1 cup 1 cup almonds.or 1 cup hazelnuts
Mace 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon nutmeg
Margarine 1 cup 1 cup shortening and 1/2 teaspoon salt, or 1 cup butter, or 7/8 cup vegetable oil and 1/2 teaspoon salt, or 7/8 cup lard and 1/2 teaspoon salt
Mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream, or 1 cup plain yogurt
Milk (whole) 1 cup 1 cup soy milk, or 1 cup rice milk, or 1 cup water or juice, or 1/4 cup dry milk powder and 1 cup water, or 2/3 cup evaporated milk and 1/3 cup water
Mint (fresh) 1/4 cup, chopped 1 tablespoon dried mint leaves
Molasses 1 cup 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
Mustard (prepared) 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon dried mustard, 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon vinegar and 1 teaspoon sugar
Onion 1 cup, chopped 1 cup chopped green onions, or 1 cup chopped shallots, or 1 cup chopped leeks, or 1/4 cup dried minced onion, or 1/4 cup onion powder
Orange juice 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon other citrus juice
Orange zest 1 tablespoon 1/2 teaspoon orange extract, or 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Parmesan cheese 1/2 cup, grated 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese, or 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese
Parsley (fresh) 1 tablespoon, chopped fresh 1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil, or 1 teaspoon dried parsley
Pepperoni 1 ounce 1 ounce salami
Raisins 1 cup 1 cup dried currants, or 1 cup dried cranberries, or 1 cup chopped pitted prunes
Rice (white) 1 cup, cooked 1 cup cooked barley, or 1 cup cooked bulgar, or 1 cup cooked brown or wild rice
Ricotta 1 cup 1 cup dry cottage cheese, or 1 cup silken tofu
Rum 1 tablespoon 1/2 teaspoon rum extract and enough water to make 1 tablespoon total liquid
Saffron 1/4 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon turmeric
Salami 1 ounce 1 ounce pepperoni
Semisweet chocolate chips 1 cup 1 cup chocolate candies, or 1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips, or 1 cup chopped nuts, or 1 cup chopped dried fruit
Shallots 1/2 cup 1/2 cup chopped onion, or 1/2 cup chopped leek, or 1/2 cup chopped green onion
Shortening 1 cup 1 cup butter, or 1 cup margarine minus 1/2 teaspoon salt from recipe
Sour cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt, or 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar and enough cream to make 1 cup total liquid, or 3/4 cup buttermilk and with 1/3 cup butter
Sour milk 1 cup 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice and enough milk to make 1 cup total liquid (let stand 5 minutes to thicken)
Soy sauce 1/2 cup 1/4 cup Worcestershire sauce and 1 tablespoon water
Stock (beef or chicken) 1 cup 1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water
Sweetened condensed milk 1 (14 oz) can 3/4 cup white sugar, 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk (bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes)
Vegetable oil (for baking) 1 cup 1 cup applesauce, or 1 cup fruit puree
Vegetable oil (for frying) 1 cup 1 cup lard, or 1 cup vegetable shortening
Vinegar 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon lemon or lime juice, or 2 teaspoons white wine
White sugar 1 cup 1 cup brown sugar, or 1 1/4 cups confectioners sugar, or 3/4 cup honey, or 3/4 cup corn syrup
Wine 1 cup 1 cup chicken or beef broth, or 1 cup fruit juice  and 2 teaspoons vinegar, or 1 cup water
Yeast (active, dry) 1 (0.25 oz) package 1 cake compressed yeast, or 2 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast, or 2 1/2 teaspoons rapid-rise yeast
Yogurt 1 cup 1 cup sour cream, or 1 cup buttermilk, or 1 cup sour milk